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姓名:邵志芳
联系电话:021-62233267
电子邮箱:zfshao@psy.ecnu.edu.cn
通讯地址:
研究方向:认知心理、社会认知
个人简介

 

研究方向

  • 特定的问题求解任务(特别是与社会性事物相关的问题求解)所涉及认知过程、表征形式、认知操作、认知风格以及神经生理机制等问题。
  • 目前已有的和将要进行的研究有:(1)高考试题认知难度的认知任务分析,即为试题求解建立认知模型,评定其对认知的需求,进而衡量其认知难度的;(2)说谎与创新能力的关系,探讨说谎倾向、说谎能力中的创造性思维成分;(3)社会性概念的认知成分,探讨专家和普通公众对一些建构性的复杂概念(例如“智力”、“文化”、“爱情”等)在内容和结构上的异同;(4)文化生活脚本与价值观的成分等,考察人对重要生活事件的看法以及人的价值观的成分是否因文化背景不同而发生改变。
  • 学术硕士招生方向应用认知心理学MAP招生方向工业心理学
 

 

近期文章

高考成绩性别差异研究的回顾与展望
邵志芳,庞维国
Looking back and ahead: Research on Gender Gap in China’s College Entrance Examination Scores
SHAO Zhi-Fang,PANG Wei-Guo
 
摘要 进入21世纪以来,中国大陆女生通过高考成为普通高校学生的比例持续攀升,新生录取的性别比例已从男生多于女生变成女生多于男生,以至于有人呼吁要“拯救男孩”。本文回顾了近年来国内外关于高考成绩性别差异的相关文献,从高考总分和科目分的性别差异、不同科目内容和认知目标上的性别差异、两性成绩差异的成因和影响因素等多个侧面,对性别差异的相关问题进行了初步的梳理。结果显示,高考成绩的性别差异确实存在,并可能影响高校录取性别比例;但性别差异的成因与影响因素十分复杂,各种研究所得的结果也不尽相同。以此为基础,本文进一步讨论了高考成绩性别差异研究存在的问题和可能的研究方向。

 
Abstract: Published data from the Ministry of Education of China show that more female students than male students in Mainland China passed the college entrance examination. In 2013, the female-male ratio of college admission rose up to 55:45. As a result, the percentage of female graduate students reached 51.65%, and that of female undergraduate students reached 52.12%. Meanwhile, the percentage of female students in high schools is less than 50%. Such a situation might be considered as a sign of development of China, as it happened in many developed countries earlier. But its potential consequences should be studied. The gender gap in college entrance examination scores might lead to the increase of the number of female students in high education institutions. Meanwhile, this gender gap might be widened under the proposed reform of National College Entrance Exam (NCEE), where students would take only three subjects (mathematics, Chinese and Foreign Language). Female students are better at the latter two than male students. As a response to this situation, some people even propose to “save the boys.” The present article reviews some recent major studies on the gender gap in college entrance examination scores from multiple perspectives: the gender gap in college entrance examination scores and of subject (Mathematics, Chinese, and Foreign Language) scores; the gender gaps in subfields of a given subject; the gender differences in cognitive goals and the causes of these gaps. This review reveals that in general there exists an academic gender gap in college entrance examination. Some studies show that the gender difference is not significant in mathematics, whereas females perform significantly better than males in Chinese and English. Subfields of a given subject might have different modes of gender gap: some may be positive (males better than females), whereas others negative. The gender gap influences the university admission ratio of males to females. Competing results are found due to the complicated influential factors, including psycho-traits, behavioral and emotional differences. Although some studies propose that gender differences in most psycho-traits were very small, they also point out that men are better at science, mechanical reasoning and spatial ability, while women are better at language, perception and arithmetic. Gender gap also takes the form of behavioral or emotional differences when students are coping with their learning and tests. Other factors involve motivation, anxiety, personal traits, social economic status, self-concept level, cognitive self-regulation, locus of control, competitiveness of test situation, and type of schools. Females can get more offers when they submit their applications after learning their exact NCEE scores. In conclusion, this article poses a number of problems to be solved. For example, is it necessary for NCEE to measure or even reduce the gender gap? How to manipulate the item characteristics to change the gender gap size? There are also some unknown causes of gender gap (including the possible difference of male and female’s score distribution). We know little about the consequences of current female-male ratio of college admission, including the problem of educational equity, females’ adaptation in their college career. A meta-analysis of studies on gender gap is needed in order to draw stronger conclusions.
 
基金资助:
2014年度教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目“近10年高考试题难度的性别差异研究”,项目批准号:14YJA190010。
 
引用本文(Citation):  
邵志芳,庞维国. 高考成绩性别差异研究的回顾与展望[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2016, 34(1): 69-75.
SHAO Zhi-Fang,PANG Wei-Guo. Looking back and ahead: Research on Gender Gap in China’s College Entrance Examination Scores[J]. Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa, 2016, 34(1): 69-75.
 
 
 
 
Event centrality of positive and negative autobiographical memories to identity and life story across cultures
Alejandra Zaragoza Scherman, Sinué Salgado, Zhifang Shao, and Dorthe Berntsen
 
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cultural differences exist in event centrality, emotional distress and well-being in a total of 565 adults above age 40 from Mexico, Greenland, China and Denmark. Participants completed questionnaires to determine their level of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, and of life satisfaction. They also completed event centrality scales for their most positive and most negative life events. Across cultures, participants rated positive events as more central to their identity and life stories, compared with negative events. Furthermore, participants with higher levels of emotional distress rated negative events as more central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. However, a converse pattern was not found for positive events. Finally, participants with higher scores of life satisfaction tended to rate positive events as more central and negative events as less central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. It is concluded that across cultures, positive events are considered more central to identity and life story than negative events and that event centrality ratings tend to be affected in similar ways by higher versus lower levels of emotional distress or well-being.
 
Keywords: Autobiographical memory; Cultural differences; Event centrality; Emotional valence; Emotional distress.
 
​To cite this article: Alejandra Zaragoza Scherman, Sinué Salgado, Zhifang Shao & Dorthe Berntsen (2015). Event centrality of positive and negative autobiographical memories to identity and life story across cultures, Memory, 23:8, 1152-1171, DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2014.962997
To link to this article:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2014.962997

 

最新著作、译作(教材)

 

 

 

 

 

 

  邵志芳博士:毕业于华东师范大学,获得心理学博士学位。目前为华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院副教授,主要研究领域为:认知心理、社会认知。

 

 


 
Selected Publications:
论文:

 

  • 邵志芳,庞维国. 高考成绩性别差异研究的回顾与展望[J]. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2016, 34(1): 69-75.   ----SHAO Zhi-Fang,PANG Wei-Guo. Looking back and ahead: Research on Gender Gap in China’s College Entrance Examination Scores[J]. Journal of East China Normal University(Educationa, 2016, 34(1): 69-75.[全文1]【全文2】
  • Alejandra Zaragoza Scherman, Sinué Salgado, Zhifang Shao & Dorthe Berntsen (2015) Event centrality of positive and negative autobiographical memories to identity and life story across cultures, Memory, 23:8, 1152-1171, DOI: 10.1080/09658211.2014.962997
  • 杨立状, 樊琦, 蒋怀滨, 邵志芳. (2014). 特征变化的连续性影响客体连续表征的维持. 心理科学, 37, 294-297.
  • 徐笑含, 谢新秀, 邵志芳. (2012). 周边视觉的知觉学习. 心理科学, 35, 1338-1342.
  • 邵志芳, 杜逸旻, 王岩, 李先春. (2011). 无决策成分的靶记忆与源记忆的加工深度比较. 心理科学, 34, 337-342.
  • 邵志芳, 温婷婷. (2010). 社会认可:其特征和功能(英文). 心理科学, 33(5): 1208-1211.
  • 黄丽凤, 邵志芳, 孟徐虹, 徐梦楠, 张蕾. (2010). 诱导情绪影响面部表情识别的反应偏向. 心理科学, 33(3): 624-626.
  • 邵志芳, 李二霞. (2010). 中高考数学试题难度的认知任务分析. 华东师范大学学报(教育科学版), 2010(1), 48-52.
  • 李二霞‚ 邵志芳. (2009). 试题难度多项指标的认知任务分析. 心理科学‚ 32(6): 1342-1344.
  • 杨立状‚ 邵志芳. (2009). 客体替代掩蔽:视觉后向掩蔽研究的新进展. 心理科学‚ 32(2): 378-380.
  • 王优, 邵志芳. (2009). 笔划频率和字体对汉字大小辨认阈限的影响. 心理科学, 32(1): 134-136.
  • 王健‚ 邵志芳. (2008). 电子地图汉字大小辨认阈限和合理字间距. 应用心理科学‚ 16(1): 60-65.
  • 邵志芳‚ 余岚. (2008). 试题难度的事前认知任务分析. 心理科学‚ 31(3): 696-698.
  • Shao‚ Z. F.‚ & He‚ M. X. (2007). Perceptual learning of dot pattern. Progress in Natural Science‚ 17(13)‚ 35-38. 
     

 
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